In 1947, a Bedouin boy accidentally discovered ancient scrolls, dating to about the time of Jesus, in a cave on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. The remains of over 900 different scrolls were eventually found in 11 caves in the vicinity, which have come to be called the Dead Sea Scrolls. These scrolls include Biblical books, related Biblical works, and literature describing the beliefs and practices of the Jewish sect that deposited the scrolls in the caves. Many scholars identify this sect with the ancient Essenes described by various writers such as Pliny the Elder. At least some of the members of this group lived at the site of Qumran which is adjacent to the caves where the scrolls were found. This lecture focuses on the archaeology of Qumran, which was excavated in the 1950s, and the connection between the site and the scrolls from the cave.